医学翻译之临床医学翻译(一) 艾滋病词典-HI

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:2353

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艾滋病词典-HIV/AIDS terms(A-H)
3TC  - 拉米夫定 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; 3TC is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, nuke)  
 
abacavir  - 阿巴卡伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, nuke)  
 
ABC  
   See: abacavir
 
abdominal pain  - 腹痛 
    Feelings of discomfort in the abdomen or belly, including the stomach, liver, intestines, spleen and pancreas  
 
Aboriginal people  - 原住民 
    In Canada, Aboriginal people are the descendents of the original inhabitants of North America, including First Nations people, Métis and Inuit  
 
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  - 后天免疫失调症 
    The most severe manifestation of infection with HIV, which causes damage to the immune system; AIDS is usually associated with opportunistic infections, cancers and/or weight loss  
 
action research  
   See: community-based research
 
adherence  - 遵守疗程 
    How well a person is able to continue their pill-taking schedule as prescribed and directed  
 
adverse reaction  
   See: side effect
 
aerosolized  - 气雾剂 
    Made into a fine mist; an aerosolized drug is given as a spray that is inhaled into the lungs  
 
Agenerase  
   See: amprenavir
 
AIDS  
   See: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
 
AIDS dementia complex  - 艾滋病痴呆综合症 
    A disease of the brain caused by HIV that leads to loss of coordination, mood swings and problems thinking clearly  
 
allergic reaction  - 过敏性反应 
    Over-reaction of the immune system to a drug or other normally safe compound  
 
alternative medicine  
   See: complementary therapy
 
amprenavir  - 安普那伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; amprenavir is a protease inhibitor (PI)  
 
anabolic steroid  - 合成代谢类固醇 
    A synthetic hormone used to increase muscle size and strength; anabolic steroids are derived from testosterone  
 
anal sex  - 肛交 
    Sexual intercourse where the penis is inserted in the anus  
 
anemia  - 贫血症 
    A deficiency in the capacity of blood to carry oxygen to cells and tissues; tests for anemia measure hemoglobin, red blood cell volume, and red blood cell number  
 
anonymous HIV testing  - 匿名艾滋病测试 
    A service that offers HIV diagnostic tests without asking for or recording people’s names  
 
antagonist  - 对抗剂 
    A drug that counteracts or neutralizes another drug  
 
antibody  - 抗体 
    A disease-fighting protein created by the immune system; antibodies selectively neutralize foreign matter in the body, providing protection from certain viruses, bacteria and toxins; antibodies are part of the humoral immune response  
 
antifungal drug  - 抗霉药 
    A drug used to treat fungal infections like candidiasis  
 
antiobiotic drug  - 抗生素 
    A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms  
 
antioxidant  - 抗氧化剂 
    A substance that reduces the damage to cells caused by oxidative stress; examples include beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E  
 
antiviral drug  - 抗病毒药物 
    A drug used to treat viral infections like herpes  
 
Aptivus  
   See: tipranavir
 
APV  
   See: amprenavir
 
ART  
   See: highly active antiretroviral therapy
 
aspergillosis  - 曲霉病 
    A disease caused by a fungal infection; it can cause sores on the skin, ears, in the nose, or sometimes on internal organs  
 
atazanavir  - 阿扎那伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; atazanavir is a protease inhibitor (PI)  
 
ATZ  
   See: atazanavir
 
Ayurveda  - 印度传统草药医术 
    A system of traditional medicine practiced in India  
 
AZT  - 齐多夫定 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; AZT is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, nuke)

Bactrim  
   See: Septra
 
barebacking  - 无套肛交 
    Sexual intercourse, particularly anal sex, where no condom is used  
 
baseline  - 基线 
    A test result, such as CD4+ count or viral load, taken before treatment is started; when compared with later test results, a baseline can be used to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment  
 
bereavement  - 居丧 
    Sadness and grief over the death of a loved one  
 
beta blocker  - 乙型阻滞剂 
    A drug used to treat high blood pressure  
 
bioavailability  - 生物药效率 
    The percentage of a drug or nutrient that is absorbed by the body and becomes active; low bioavailability means only a small portion of the ingested drug is active in the body  
 
biopsy  - 活组织检查 
    A small piece of tissue taken from the body and analyzed for the presence of disease  
 
bisexuality  - 双性恋 
    Sexual or romantic attraction to both men and women  
 
blood-brain barrier  - 血脑屏障 
    A membrane separating brain tissue from circulating blood; the blood-brain barrier often prevents drugs from entering the central nervous system from the blood stream  
 
bloodwork  - 验血 
    Laboratory tests that measure properties of the blood  
 
BMI  
   See: body mass index
 
body composition  - 身体成份 
    The percentage of body fat compared with lean body mass; lean body mass includes muscle, bones, organs and water  
 
body mass index  - 身体质量指数 
    A measure of the relative amounts of fat and muscle in the body; body mass index is calculated as weight divided by height squared  
 
boosted regimen  - 加强药方 
    A drug combination where the effectiveness of one drug is increased by adding a low dose of another drug (usually ritonavir); boosted regimens usually require fewer doses and result in more stable concentrations of drugs in the body  
 
breast-feeding  - 母乳喂哺 
    When a mother feeds her newborn child with milk from her breasts  
 
buffalo hump  - 水牛峰 
    An accumulation of fat on the back of the neck and middle of the upper back; it is part of the lipodystrophy syndrome caused by anti-HIV drugs


caesarean section  - 剖腹分娩 
    A surgery performed to deliver a baby through the abdominal wall (stomach) of the mother, as opposed to birth through the vagina  
 
cancer  - 癌症 
    A disease characterized by uncontrolled growth (neoplasm, tumour) and spread (metastasis) of abnormal cells in the body; HIV can cause rare forms of cancer like Kaposi’s sarcoma  
 
candidiasis  - 念珠菌感染 
    A fungal infection, caused by Candida; in the mouth, candidiasis is called thrush and shows up as white patches; in the vagina, the disease is called vulvovaginal candidiasis; candidiasis can also attack lungs and the throat (esophagus)  
 
cannabis  
   See: marijuana
 
cardiovascular disease  - 心血管病 
    A disease that affects the heart or blood vessels; examples include heart attack, stroke and congestive heart failure  
 
CAT scan  
   See: computed tomography scan
 
CBC  
   See: complete blood count
 
CCR5  
   See: coreceptor
 
CD4+ count  - CD4白血球读数 
    CD4+ cells are a type of immune system cell (T cell) that helps fight infections; CD4+ cells are easily infected by HIV; the CD4+ cell count measures the number of CD4+ cells in the blood and is used to monitor the progression of HIV  
 
CD8+ count  - CD8白血球读数 
    CD8+ cells are a type of immune system cell (T cell) that helps fight infections; the CD8+ cell count measures the number of CD8+ cells in the blood; the ratio of CD4+ cells to CD8+ cells is often lower in people with HIV/AIDS  
 
cell-mediated immunity  - 细胞免疫 
    Part of the immune system that uses cells (T cells, killer cells and macrophages) to directly attack foreign material without using antibodies; cell-mediated immunity is damaged by HIV infection  
 
cerebrospinal fluid  - 脑脊髓液 
    A clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord  
 
cervical cancer  - 子宫颈癌 
    An abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells in the cervix (the opening of the uterus) of women  
 
cervical dysplasia  - 子宫颈细胞病变 
    An abnormal growth of tissue in the cervix (the opening of the uterus) of women; if untreated, cervical dysplasia can lead to cancer  
 
chlamydia  - 依原体病毒 
    A sexually transmitted infection; if untreated, it can lead to cancer  
 
cholesterol levels  - 胆固醇水平 
    The amount of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a fatty substance (lipid) that plays an important role in normal body functioning; there are 2 types of cholesterol: high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoproteins  
 
cirrhosis  - 肝硬化 
    A condition in which the liver is damaged and doesn’t work well; causes include infection (for example, hepatitis) and excessive alcohol consumption  
 
CKR5  
   See: coreceptor
 
clinical endpoint  - 临床终点 
    A direct marker of disease progression, for example, disease symptoms or death; the effectiveness of a drug is often tested by looking at clinical endpoints that develop over time in patients receiving the drug  
 
CMV  
   See: cytomegalovirus
 
cohort study  - 群组研究 
    An observational study that follows a group of people (the cohort) over a period of time; the group usually shares some characteristic in common, such as gender, medical condition or HIV risk group  
 
co-infection  - 重叠感染 
    Having two or more infections at the same time; for example, HIV and hepatitis C  
 
combination therapy  
   See: highly active antiretroviral therapy
 
Combivir  - 双汰芝(商品名) 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; Combivir is a combination of AZT and 3TC, two drugs that are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nukes)  
 
community-based research  - 社区研究调查 
    Research that involves community members in all stages of the research process, from definition of the research question to conducting research to analyzing results and reporting findings  
 
comorbidity  - 并存疾病 
    The presence of more than one disease or health condition in a person at the same time  
 
compassionate use  - 特许使用未认可药物 
    When an experimental drug is made available to seriously ill patients outside of the clinical trial setting before the drug is approved for general use  
 
complementary and alternative health care (CAHC)  
   See: complementary therapy
 
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)  
   See: complementary therapy
 
complementary therapy  - 辅助疗法 
    Health and medical practices that fall outside of conventional Western medicine, such as herbal therapies, mind-body therapies and naturopathy  
 
complete blood count  - 全血球指数 
    A series of tests to examine the components of blood, including red and white blood cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin; these common tests give a general sense of overall health  
 
computed tomography scan  - 电脑断层扫描 
    A method of visualizing soft tissues of the body using X-rays  
 
condom  - 安全套 
    A physical barrier used during sexual intercourse to prevent the transmission of semen; the male condom covers the penis, the female condom is inserted into the vagina; condoms lower the risk of pregnancy and of contracting sexually transmitted infections  
 
Condylomata acuminate  
   See: genital wart
 
contraindication  - 禁忌症候 
    A disease, condition or circumstance where a treatment must not be used  
 
control arm  - 对照小组 
    A group in a clinical trial that does not receive the studied treatment; by comparing this group with the group that does receive the treatment, researchers can tell whether the treatment is working  
 
Copegus  
   See: ribavirin
 
coreceptor  - 辅助受体 
    A molecule found on the surface of cells that is used by HIV to enter the cell; HIV needs both the CD4 molecule and a co-receptor to infect a cell  
 
correctional facility  - 惩教所 
    A prison or jail  
 
Crixivan  
   See: indinavir
 
cross resistance  - 交义抗药, 交义耐药 
    Resistance to one drug that also causes resistance to other drugs of the same class  
 
cross-over design  - 交义对照设计 
    A clinical trial design in which the therapy given to different groups (or arms) is switched during the course of the trial (the arm receiving drug is switched to placebo, and vice-versa)  
 
cross-sectional study  - 横断面研究 
    A study that looks at a broad range of people but at only one time point  
 
cryptococcal meningitis  - 隐球菌脑膜炎 
    A fungal infection of the brain and spinal cord that affects the brain’s ability to function  
 
cryptosporidiosis  - 隐性孢子虫病 
    A fungal infection of the brain and spinal cord that can affect brain function  
 
C-section  
   See: caesarean section
 
CSF  
   See: cerebrospinal fluid
 
CT scan  
   See: computed tomography scan
 
CXCR4  
   See: coreceptor
 
cytokine  - 细胞分裂素 
    A protein produced by some white blood cells to send messages to other cells  
 
cytomegalovirus  - 巨细胞病毒 
    A virus that can cause CMV retinitis, which can lead to blindness if left untreated; CMV is an opportunistic infection
d4T  - 司他夫定 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; d4T is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, nuke)  
 
data safety and monitoring board  - 资料安全性监察委员会 
    A group of experts that makes sure a clinical trial is safe and ethical  
 
ddC  - 扎西他滨 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; ddC is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, nuke)  
 
ddI  - 去羟肌苷 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; ddI is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, nuke)  
 
delavirdine  - 地拉伟定 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; delavirdine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI, non-nuke)  
 
dementia  - 痴呆症 
    A loss of the ability to think clearly, often accompanied by changes in emotions  
 
deoxyribonucleic acid  - 脱氧核糖核酸 
    A molecule that encodes genetic information and is found in the nucleus of cells  
 
depression  - 抑郁症 
    A state of sadness or despair; clinical depression is a medical diagnosis in which a person cannot live normally because of feelings of sadness, inadequacy and a lack of energy  
 
DEXA  
   See: dual-energy x-ray absorbtiometry
 
diabetes  - 糖尿病 
    A disease characterized by high blood glucose levels, caused by not enough insulin in the blood or by cells that do not respond to insulin  
 
diagnosis  - 诊断 
    The act of determining what illness a sick person has. Diagnosis generally involves the patient`s medical history, clinical symptoms and laboratory test results  
 
diarrhea  - 腹泻 
    Frequent, loose bowel movements; diarrhea may be caused by HIV, other infections or medicines  
 
didanosine  
   See: ddI
 
disclosure  - 公开 
    Telling someone about your HIV status  
 
DLV  
   See: delavirdine
 
DNA  
   See: deoxyribonucleic acid
 
doctor–patient relationship  - 医生与病人的关系 
    The interaction between a patient and a doctor  
 
double blind  - 双盲法 
    A clinical trial where neither the subject nor the researcher knows what treatment, if any, the subject is receiving  
 
drug cocktail  
   See: highly active antiretroviral therapy
 
drug desensitization  - 药物减敏 
    Reducing or avoiding an allergic reaction to a drug by first giving a small amount, then slowly increasing the dose  
 
drug holiday  - 药物假期 
    Stopping all anti-HIV medication for a period of time; structured treatment interruption is an experimental procedure for studying the effects of stopping treatment under specific conditions  
 
drug interaction  - 药物相互作用 
    When one drug changes how a second drug behaves in the body, often increasing or decreasing the amount of the second drug in the blood  
 
drug regimen  - 药物配合法 
    A pill-taking schedule that includes the amount of drug, the number of doses per time period and the time between doses  
 
drug resistance  - 抗药性/耐药性 
    The ability of HIV or any other microbe to lose its sensitivity to a drug; resistant forms of HIV can function and replicate despite the drug's presence  
 
drug sensitivity  - 药物敏感 
    The ability of HIV or any other microbe to be affected by a drug (for example, HIV is sensitive to AZT if AZT is able to prevent viral replication)  
 
drug user  - 吸毒者 
    A person who uses recreational drugs  
 
DSMB  
   See: data safety and monitoring board
 
dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry  - 双能量 X射线扫描(测量骨质密度) 
    A medical imaging test that assesses bone density, and is used to detect osteoporosis
ED  
   See: erectile dysfunction
 
efavirenz  - 依非伟伦 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI, non-nuke)  
 
efficacy trial  - 药效比较实验 
    A clinical trial that tests a drug’s ability to treat a disease or condition  
 
EFV  
   See: efavirenz
 
EI  
   See: entry inhibitor
 
ELISA  
   See: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
 
emtricitabine  
   See: FTC
 
Emtriva  
   See: FTC
 
endemic  - 地方病 
    In HIV/AIDS research, endemic refers to a country where the prevalence of HIV is greater than 1% and the main way people become infected with HIV is through heterosexual intercourse  
 
endocrine system  - 内分泌系统 
    The system that regulates body functions via hormones secreted into the bloodstream; the endocrine system includes the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands and gonads (ovaries and testes)  
 
ENF  
   See: enfuvirtide
 
enfuvirtide  - 融合抑制剂 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; enfuvirtide is an entry inhibitor (EI)  
 
entry inhibitor  - 侵入抑制剂 
    A class of anti-HIV drugs that suppress HIV from entering cells  
 
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  - 酶联免疫吸附试验 
    A laboratory test used to detect the presence of antibodies in the blood; in diagnosing HIV infection, ELISA is used for first-line screening for HIV antibodies and is typically confirmed using a western blot assay  
 
epidemiology  - 流行病学 
    The study of how a disease affects a population, including how many people it affects, who it affects, and how it moves through the population  
 
Epivir  
   See: 3TC
 
Epzicom  
   See: Kivexa
 
erectile dysfunction  - 勃起功能障碍 
    A condition where a man has trouble achieving or maintaining an erection  
 
esophageal candidiasis  - 食道念珠菌感染 
    A fungal infection of the esophagus (throat) that may cause painful swallowing leading to weight loss  
 
euthanasia  - 安乐死 
    The deliberate ending of life to end pain and suffering  
 
exclusion criteria  - 排除标准 
    Characteristics of an individual that disqualify him or her from taking part in a clinical trial (for example, CD4+ cell count, pregnancy, other drugs taken)  
 
expanded access  - 扩大获得 
    A program that makes experimental drugs available on a wide basis to patients who don`t qualify for a clinical trial
facial wasting  - 面部秏损症 
    A form of lipodystrophy that involves losing the fat under the skin of the face  
 
FI  
   See: fusion inhibitor
 
Fortovase  
   See: saquinavir
 
fosamprenavir  - 福沙那伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; fosamprenavir is a protease inhibitor (PI)  
 
FPV  
   See: fosamprenavir
 
FTC  - 胞嘧啶核苷类似物 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; FTC is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, nuke)  
 
fungal infection  - 霉菌感染 
    A disease caused by fungi, such as candidiasis (thrush), cryptococcal meningitis and toxoplasmosis  
 
fusin  
   See: coreceptor
 
fusion inhibitor  - 融合抑制剂 
    A class of anti-HIV drugs that suppress HIV by stopping it from fusing with the membrane of host cells  
 
Fuzeon  
   See: enfuvirtide
gastrointestinal condition  - 肠胃病 
    Any medical problem related to the stomach or intestines, such as nausea or diarrhea  
 
gay man  - 男同志 
    A man who has emotional and sexual relations with other men  
 
genital wart  - 生殖器尖锐湿疹 
    Genital and/or anal warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and may appear as tiny white spots or as larger tumours or masses; genital warts are typically sexually transmitted and may be larger or more numerous in people with HIV  
 
genome  - 基因组 
    The unique genetic code or hereditary material of an organism; the genome of HIV contains 9 genes  
 
genotypic testing  - 遗传因子测试 
    A test for drug resistance that reads the virus’s genetic code to look for changes known to be associated with resistance to certain drugs  
 
gonorrhea  - 淋病 
    A sexually transmitted infection caused by a bacteria; gonorrhea may cause a thick discharge from the penis or vagina, and sometimes a burning sensation when urinating; in many people, especially women, there may be no symptoms  
 
gynecological condition  - 妇科病 
    Any medical condition affecting the female reproductive organs
HAART  
   See: highly active antiretroviral therapy
 
hairy leukoplakia  - 毛状白斑 
    An opportunistic infection causing white lesions (patches) on the cheeks, gums or tongue, possibly related to Epstein-Barr virus infection  
 
half-life  - 半存留期 
    The time required for half the amount of an agent (for example, drug, virus, cell type) to be eliminated from the body; a drug with a long half-life stays in the body for a long time  
 
harm reduction  - 减少伤害 
    An approach to treatment, especially for injection drug users, that avoids making judgments about addictions or requiring people to stop using drugs before receiving treatment or care  
 
heart condition  - 心脏病 
    A medical condition that leads to the heart not functioning as well as normal  
 
hemophilia  - 血友病 
    A disorder that prevents normal blood clotting; hemophilia is hereditary  
 
hep C  
   See: hepatitis C
 
hepatitis  - 肝炎 
    An inflammation of the liver that may be caused by several agents, including viruses and toxins; hepatitis is characterized by jaundice, enlarged liver, fever, fatigue and abnormal liver function tests  
 
hepatitis C  - 丙型肝炎 
    A viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver and may lead to life-threatening liver damage, cirrhosis and/or liver cancer; HCV is spread by unprotected sex, contaminated blood products or shared needles  
 
hepatotoxicity  - 肝中毒 
    Destructive to the liver  
 
herpes simplex virus  - 单纯疱疹病毒 
    A virus that causes blisters and recurring disease; one type usually produces painful lesions on the lips or in the mouth ("cold sores" or "fever blist

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