医学翻译之临床医学翻译(一)艾滋病词典-HIV

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:2433

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艾滋病词典-HIV/AIDS terms(I-Q)
IDU  
   See: injection drug user 
 
IDV  
   See: indinavir 
 
illicit drug  
   See: recreational drug 
 
immune reconstitution  - 免疫功能重建 
    The rebuilding of an immune system that has been damaged or compromised by HIV infection; HIV treatment often leads to immune reconstitution in people with damaged immune systems 
 
immune reconstitution disease (ISD)  
   See: immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome 
 
immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome  - 免疫重建炎性综合症 
    A set of symptoms that occurs in a person whose immune system is becoming stronger as a result of HIV treatment; the symptoms appear when a previously hidden opportunistic infection appears and the immune system overreacts to it 
 
immunization  - 免疫接种 
    The process by which a person is protected against disease-causing organisms through the stimulation of an immune response 
 
immunocompromised  - 免疫受损 
    Reduced functioning of the immune system, usually as a result of a disease or condition such as HIV infection 
 
immunomodulator  - 免疫促进剂 
    An agent or process capable of modifying or influencing the function of the immune system; immunomodulators include cytokines (for example, IL-2, gamma interferon) and broad-acting agents 
 
inclusion criteria  - 包含标准 
    Characteristics of an individual that qualify him or her to take part in a clinical trial (for example, CD4+ cell count, pregnancy, other drugs taken) 
 
incubation period  
   See: window period 
 
indication  - 药物认可治疗范 
    The approved uses of a drug 
 
indinavir  - 茚地那伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; indinavir is a protease inhibitor (PI) 
 
induction therapy  - 诱导治疗 
    An initial stage of treatment to quickly cause remission of the disease. In HIV treatment, induction therapy is an experimental procedure to rapidly reduce viral load before switching to long-term “maintenance” therapy 
 
INF  
   See: interferon 
 
informed consent  - 知情同意 
    A way to protect people entering a clinical trial; each participant must sign a consent form that explains the purpose of the trial, the results expected, the mechanics of the trial, potential risks, a list of other treatments available; there is also a statement telling the participant that (s)he can leave the clinical trial at any time 
 
injection drug user  - 毒品注射者 
    A person who uses a street drug (such as heroin or cocaine) that is injected with a needle and syringe 
 
inmate  - 狱犯 
    Someone who is in a correctional facility (prison or jail) 
 
insulin  - 胰岛素 
    A hormone that enables the body to metabolize and use glucose (sugar); lack of insulin or insensitivity to it results in diabetes 
 
integrase inhibitor  - 整合酶抑制剂 
    A class of anti-HIV drugs (for example, zintevir) that suppress HIV by interfering with the action of the integrase enzyme 
 
interferon  - 干扰素 
    A protein that regulates the immune system, providing protection from microbes such as viruses 
 
interleukin  - 白细胞介素 
    A hormone (cytokine) that acts as a messenger in the immune system 
 
Invirase  
   See: saquinavir 
 
IRIS  
   See: immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome 
Kaletra  - 洛匹那伟利托那伟复合剂 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; Kaletra is a combination of lopinavir and ritonavir, two drugs that are protease inhibitors (PIs) 
 
Kaposi`s sarcoma  - 卡波氏肉瘤 
    Cancer of the blood vessels caused by a herpes virus; symptoms include red, pink or purple spots on the skin or internal organs; Kaposi’s sarcoma is very rare except in HIV-positive; it used to be a common opportunistic infection 
 
kidney function test  - 肾功能测试 
    A group of tests that show how well the kidneys are working 
 
kidney stone  - 肾结石 
    An accumulation of substances (for example, drug crystals, minerals) in the kidney, which may lead to pain and blockage 
 
Kivexa  - 拉米夫定阿巴卡伟复合剂 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; Kivexa is a combination of 3TC and abacavir, two drugs that are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nukes) 
 
KS  
   See: Kaposi`s sarcoma 
lactic acidosis  - 乳酸中毒 
    An accumulation of lactic acid in the blood that is potentially fatal; it can be caused by mitochondrial toxicity, a side effect associated with some anti-HIV drugs 
 
lactose intolerance  - 乳酸过敏 
    When a person cannot digest lactose, which is commonly found in milk and other dairy products 
 
lamivudine  
   See: 3TC 
 
lesbian  - 女同性恋者 
    A woman who has emotional and sexual relations with other women 
 
lesbian gay bisexual transgendered  - 女同性恋/男同志/ 双性恋-变性者 
    A term describing people whose sexuality falls outside of the majority heterosexual identity 
 
leukopenia  - 白血球减少 
    Abnormally low number of white blood cells 
 
Lexiva  
   See: fosamprenavir 
 
LGBT  
   See: lesbian gay bisexual transgendered 
 
lipid profile  - 脂肪型态 
    A blood test that measures the levels of lipids in the blood, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol 
 
lipodystrophy  - 脂肪代谢失调症 
    Body shape changes in people taking anti-HIV medications, including fat loss, fat deposits and metabolic changes 
 
liver enzyme levels  - 肝脏酶类水平 
    A blood test that measures levels of liver enzymes to indicate how well the liver is working and whether it might be inflamed or damaged 
 
liver function test  
   See: liver enzyme levels 
 
longitudinal study  - 追踪调查研究 
    A clinical study that follows participants over an extended period of time 
 
long-term nonprogression  - 长期没有恶化 
    When an individual who has been infected with HIV for several years (7-10 or more) does not exhibit immune system decline or have opportunistic diseases; about 10% of persons with HIV disease seem to be long-term nonprogressors 
 
LTNP  
   See: long-term nonprogression 
 
lumbar puncture  - 腰髓穿刺 
    The insertion of a needle into the space around the spinal column to remove fluid for diagnosis or to inject medications or anesthesia 
 
lymph node  - 淋巴结 
    Small bean-sized organs located throughout the body, with concentrations in the neck, groin and armpits; lymph nodes are important in immune reactions and are also reservoir sites for HIV 
 
lymphatic system  - 淋巴系统 
    The interconnected system of spaces and glands by which lymph (fluid) circulates in the body; the lymphatic system is part of the immune system 
 
lymphocyte  - 淋巴细胞 
    A T-cell or B-cell, which are the white blood cells responsible for immune defense 
 
lymphoma  - 淋巴瘤 
    Cancer of the lymphatic system
MAC  
   See: Mycobacterium avium complex 
 
magnetic resonance imaging  - 磁力共振影像 
    A diagnostic technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves (instead of X-rays); MRIs produce a 3-dimensional computer model 
 
maintenance therapy  - 维持疗法 
    Preventive or ongoing therapy that follows successful initial treatment of an illness; generally, maintenance therapy continues for the lifetime of the patient to stop the disease from occurring again 
 
malabsorption  - 吸收障碍 
    Poor absorption of nutrients or drugs in the intestines 
 
malaria  - 疟疾 
    An infection passed by the bite of mosquitoes; symptoms of disease include chills and fevers 
 
malignant  - 恶性 
    Refers to a cancer, neoplasm or tumour that grows in an uncontrolled manner, invading nearby tissue and spreading (metastasizing) to other sites through the bloodstream 
 
marijuana  - 大麻 
    Cannabis sativa, a plant that contains the psychoactive ingredient delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); medicinal marijuana is used to reduce nausea from drugs and to restore appetite in people with HIV/AIDS with wasting syndrome 
 
men who have sex with men  - 男男性关系 
    Men who have sex together 
 
meningitis  - 脑膜炎 
    Inflammation of meninges (the layers that cover the brain), usually caused by a bacterial infection 
 
menstrual disorder  - 月经失调 
    Problems with menstruation, that is, the monthly passing of blood in a woman 
 
meta-analysis  - 统计荟萃分析 
    An analysis that combines the results of two or more published studies 
 
metabolic disorder  - 新陈代谢失调症 
    A problem with any of the processes of build up, break down or excretion of substances in the body; metabolic disorders can occur as a side effect of anti-HIV drugs 
 
methadone  - 美沙酮 
    An opioid drug used for pain therapy and to treat heroin addiction 
 
microbicide  - 杀菌剂 
    An agent that inactivates, kills or destroys microbes; vaginal microbicides are one way that women may be able to protect themselves against sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV 
 
microsporidiosis  - 微孢子菌病 
    Infection that causes diarrhea and cramps; this is sometimes incorrectly diagnosed as cryptosporidiosis 
 
mitochondria  - 线粒体 
    A rod-shaped organelle that produces most of the energy inside a cell 
 
mitochondrial toxicity  - 线粒体中毒症 
    Damage to the cell’s mitochondria, sometimes caused by certain anti-HIV drugs 
 
molluscum contagiosum  - 传染性软疣 
    An infectious skin disease caused by a virus; symptoms include small, white tumours on the face or body 
 
mother-to-child transmission  - 母婴传染 
    Transmission of infection from a mother to a fetus or newborn; vertical transmission may occur in the womb (in utero), during birth (intrapartum) or during breast-feeding (postpartum) 
 
MRI  
   See: magnetic resonance imaging 
 
MSM  
   See: men who have sex with men 
 
MTCT  
   See: mother-to-child transmission 
 
mucosal immunity  - 黏膜免疫性 
    Immunity that involves antibodies located in the mucous membranes at the openings of the body (for example, the genital tract); this type of immune defense repels invaders at their point of entry 
 
multicentre  - 多发源点 
    Involving many different locations; often used to describe a clinical trial 
 
mutation  - 变异 
    A change in a gene that is kept during later cell divisions 
 
Mycobacterium avium complex  - 分枝杆菌复症 
    A disease caused by a fungus in dirt or dust particles; symptoms include weight loss, fatigue and fever 
 
myelopathy  - 脊髓病 
    A disease or disorder of the bone marrow 
 
myopathy  - 肌病 
    An inflammation or disease of the muscles that may cause pain or weakness
naturopathy  - 自然疗法 
    A system of natural healing that relies on healthy foods and exercise and the avoidance of drugs, believing that the body can cure itself 
 
nausea  - 恶心 
    A feeling of unease and discomfort in the stomach with an urge to throw up (vomit) 
 
needle exchange  - 针筒交换 
    A program where injection drug users receive clean syringes in exchange for syringes they have already used 
 
needle-stick injuries  - 针筒刺伤 
    When a person is pricked accidentally with a needle 
 
nelfinavir  - 奈非那伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; nelfinavir is a protease inhibitor (PI) 
 
neonatal  - 新生儿 
    Pertaining to a newborn baby, especially during the first weeks after birth 
 
nephropathy  - 肾病 
    Kidney disease 
 
nephrotoxicity  - 肾中毒 
    Harmful effects on the kidneys; many drugs have nephrotoxic side effects 
 
neurosyphilis  - 神经梅毒 
    A late form of syphilis that affects the brain and may lead to dementia and death 
 
neurotoxicity  - 神经中毒症 
    Harmful effects on the nervous system; some anti-HIV drugs are neurotoxic 
 
neutropenia  - 嗜中性白血球减少症 
    A low number of neutrophils in the blood; neutrophils are a white blood cell important in defending the body against infections 
 
nevirapine  - 奈维拉平 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; nevirapine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI, non-nuke) 
 
NFV  
   See: nelfinavir 
 
NHL  
   See: non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma 
 
night sweats  - 盗汗 
    Abnormal sweating during sleep 
 
NNRTI  
   See: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor 
 
non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma  - 非何杰金淋巴瘤 
    A type of cancer of the lymph nodes; NHL is characterized by abnormal growth of B-cells and is the most common type of lymphoma in people with HIV/AIDS 
 
non-narcotic pain reliever  - 非麻醉止痛药 
    A class of drugs that relieves pain; examples include acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 
 
non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor  - 非核苷类逆转录酶抑制剂 
    A class of anti-HIV drugs that suppress HIV by blocking the reverse transcriptase enzyme, a viral enzyme involved in making more copies of HIV 
 
non-nuke  
   See: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor 
 
nonprescription drug  
   See: over-the-counter drug 
 
NRTI  
   See: nucleoside analogue 
 
NtRTI  
   See: nucleotide analogue 
 
nucleoside analogue  - 核苷类近似体 
    A compound (for example, AZT, ddI, ddC, d4T, 3TC) that mimics one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA; these compounds suppress HIV replication by interfering with the reverse transcriptase enzyme 
 
nucleotide analogue  - 核苷酸近似体 
    A compound (for example, tenofovir), similar to a nucleoside analogue but with an extra molecule attached, that mimics a building block of DNA and RNA; these compounds interfere with viral replication by interfering with the reverse transcriptase enzyme 
 
nuke  
   See: nucleoside analogue 
 
nutrition  - 营养 
    The taking in and using of food and other nourishing materials by the body; eating the right kinds of foods may help people with HIV/AIDS feel better and stay stronger 
 
NVP  
   See: nevirapine 
observational study  - 前瞻性观察研究 
    A clinical study in which no drug is given, but the patient`s symptoms, laboratory values and response to treatment are observed during the course of normal medical management 
 
off-label drug use  - 无标签药物 
    Use of a drug for a purpose (indication) different from the approved uses of the drug 
 
OI  
   See: opportunistic infection 
 
opportunistic infection  - 机会性感染 
    An illness caused by a microorganism that usually does not cause disease in people with healthy immune systems, but which may cause serious illness in people with HIV/AIDS; common examples include PCP, MAC and CMV infection 
 
oral candidiasis  - 口腔念珠菌感染鹅口疮 
    A fungal infection of the mouth that often appears as white or red patches 
 
oral sex  - 口交 
    Sexual intercourse where the genitals are stimulated by the mouth 
 
orphan drug  - 治疗罕有病症药物 
    A drug that treats a rare disorder and whose development is often supported by money from the government 
 
osteopenia  - 软骨症 
    A decrease in the density of a person’s bones 
 
osteoporosis  - 骨质疏松症 
    The loss of bone and/or the loss of calcium from the bones 
 
OTC drug  
   See: over-the-counter drug 
 
over-the-counter drug  - 成药 
    A drug that is available without a prescription
pain management  - 痛症处理 
    The use of drugs and other techniques to relieve pain and make a person more comfortable 
 
palliative care  - 安宁护理 
    Medical care that relieves symptoms and provides comfort but does not cure; palliative care is an approach to life-threatening chronic illnesses, especially at the end of life 
 
pancreatitis  - 胰脏炎 
    A potentially fatal inflammation of the pancreas; pancreatitis is a side effect of some anti-HIV drugs 
 
Pap smear  - 子宫颈细胞抹片检查 
    A procedure in which cells are taken from the uterine cervix or anus, prepared on a slide and examined under a microscope for signs of abnormal cell growth or cancer 
 
Papanicolou smear  
   See: Pap smear 
 
participatory research  
   See: community-based research 
 
peak level  - 最高水平 
    The highest concentration of a drug achieved in the body 
 
peer support  - 朋辈互助 
    Help from other people, including family, friends and especially other people with HIV/AIDS 
 
Pegasys  - 派罗欣(长效型干扰素) 
    A form of the drug interferon; Pegasys is usually taken with Copegus, a form of ribavirin, to treat hepatitis C infection 
 
Pegatron  - 长效型干扰素利巴伟林复合剂 
    A form of the drug interferon; Pegatron is usually taken with Rebetol, a form of ribavirin, to treat hepatitis C infection 
 
pelvic inflammatory disease  - 盆腔炎 
    An infection in the upper female reproductive tract, including the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries 
 
penicillin  - 盘尼西林 
    An antibiotic drug used to treat various bacterial infections 
 
pentamidine  - 戍烷脒 
    A drug used to prevent and treat Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) 
 
PEP  
   See: post-exposure prophylaxis 
 
perinatal transmission  
   See: mother-to-child transmission 
 
peripheral neuropathy  - 末稍神经痛症 
    Any disease, inflammation or abnormality of the peripheral nervous system (all the nerves that are not part of the brain and spinal cord) 
 
person with HIV/AIDS  - 艾滋病患者 
    A person infected with HIV, who may or may not have AIDS 
 
PHA  
   See: person with HIV/AIDS 
 
pharmacokinetic study  - 药物动力研究 
    A clinical trial of an experimental drug that looks at the body`s ability to absorb the drug 
 
pharmacokinetics  - 药物动力 
    How a drug behaves in the body, including how quickly it is absorbed, metabolized and excreted 
 
phase of clinical trial  - 临床实验阶段 
    Before a drug is approved for use in humans, it goes through three phases of clinical trials; phase I trials test drug pharmacokinetics, safety and toxicity in healthy volunteers; phase II and III trials test the drug`s effectiveness to treat a condition; phase III trials often involve more people and may compare the drug to other therapies or to placebo 
 
phenotypic testing  - 生态表现测试 
    A test for viral drug resistance that is based on the ability of the virus to reproduce in the presence of the drug 
 
PI  
   See: protease inhibitor 
 
PID  
   See: pelvic inflammatory disease 
 
placebo  - 无效对照剂 
    An inactive substance given to a control group in a clinical trial; a placebo is sometimes called a sugar pill 
 
plasma  - 血浆 
    The liquid portion of blood that carries blood cells, nutrients, metabolic wastes and chemical signals between different parts of the body 
 
PML  
   See: progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy 
 
Pneumocystis pneumonia  - 卡氏肺囊虫肺炎 
    A life-threatening type of pneumonia that can cause severe illness in people with CD4+ counts less than 200 
 
pneumonia  - 肺炎 
    A group of diseases that show up as an inflammation of the lungs 
 
post-exposure prophylaxis  - 接触病毒后预防治疗 
    Treatment with anti-HIV drugs in a person who has just been exposed to HIV; the goal is to reduce the risk of infection 
 
pre-exposure prophylaxis  - 接触病毒前预防治疗 
    Treatment with anti-HIV drugs in a person who is at high risk of being exposed to HIV; the goal is to reduce the risk of infection if exposure happens 
 
PREP  
   See: pre-exposure prophylaxis 
 
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy  - 脑白质病 
    A viral infection of the brain; symptoms include memory loss, loss of strength, coma and death 
 
prophylaxis  - 预防性治疗 
    A drug taken to prevent an opportunistic infection from occurring or re-occuring; for example, Septra is a prophylaxis against PCP 
 
prospective study  - 前瞻性研究 
    A clinical study that looks forward in time; patients are selected and their progression is followed 
 
protease inhibitor  - 蛋白酶抑制剂 
    A class of anti-HIV drugs that suppress HIV by interfering with viral protease, an enzyme needed to create more copies of HIV proteins 
 
psoriasis  - 牛皮癣 
    A common skin condition with reddish scaly patches, often on the scalp, elbows, knees and trunk
QoL  
   See: quality of life 
 
quality of life  - 生活质素 
    How comfortable someone’s life is; there are scientific scales that try to give a number value to quality of life

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