临床医学翻译(一)艾滋病词典-HIV/AIDS terms(R-Z)

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:3973

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  艾滋病词典-HIV/AIDS terms(R-Z)
racism  - 种族歧视 
    Discrimination against a group of people because of their ethnic background  
 
randomized  - 随机 
    A clinical trial in which the chance of one individual receiving one treatment is independent of what other individuals are receiving, and the only differences between the treatment groups is the treatment  
 
rapid screening test  - 快速筛选试验 
    A test for HIV infection that gives results quickly, within minutes  
 
RBV  
   See: ribavirin
 
Rebetol  
   See: ribavirin
 
reconstructive surgery  - 整形外科手术 
    Surgery to rebuild parts of the body; in patients on anti-HIV drugs, reconstructive surgery may correct some the physical changes created by lipodystrophy  
 
recreational drug  - 消闲性药物/软性毒品 
    Any illegal drug taken to alter a person’s perception of reality; common examples are marijuana, cocaine, crystal meth and heroin  
 
re-infection  - 再感染 
    When an HIV-positive person is infected again with the same strain of HIV  
 
renal disease  - 肾脏病 
    Disease of the kidneys  
 
Rescriptor  
   See: delavirdine
 
rescue therapy  - 抢救治疗 
    HIV-drug therapy for people who have taken several drug combinations and have few options remaining  
 
resistance testing  - 抗药性/耐药性测试 
    Testing a strain of HIV to see which drugs it is resistant to; tests are either genotypic or phenotypic  
 
retinitis  - 视网膜炎 
    Inflammation of the retina of the eye, which can lead to blindness; retinitis is commonly caused by cytomegalovirus  
 
retrospective study  - 回顾性研究 
    A clinical study based on the medical records of patients, looking backward in time at events that happened in the past  
 
Retrovir  
   See: AZT
 
Reyataz  
   See: atazanavir
 
ribavirin  - 利巴伟林 
    A drug used to treat hepatitis C infection; ribavirin is usually given along with a form of interferon  
 
ribonucleic acid  - 核糖核酸 
    A single-stranded nucleic acid that encodes genetic information. RNA is normally a temporary copy for carrying genetic information from the more stable DNA; RNA takes the place of DNA in retroviruses such as HIV  
 
rifabutin  - 利福布汀 
    A drug used to prevent and treat tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease  
 
ritonavir  - 利托那伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; ritonavir is a protease inhibitor (PI); it is most often used in low doses with another PI to create a boosted regimen  
 
RNA  
   See: ribonucleic acid
safer injection site  - 安全注射中心 
    A location with medical staff where drug users may inject their drug free from problems with the police  
 
safer sex  - 安全性行为 
    Sex that reduces the chance of transmitting HIV and other infections  
 
salvage therapy  
   See: rescue therapy
 
saquinavir  - 沙奎那伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; saquinavir is a protease inhibitor (PI)  
 
Septra  - 复方新诺明 
    An antibiotic drug combination used to prevent and treat Pneumocystis pneumonia and some other opportunistic infections  
 
seroconversion  - 病毒测试转呈阳性 
    The time when a person infected with HIV starts making antibodies against the virus; when the antibodies appear in the person’s blood serum, the person is seropositive  
 
serodiscordant couple  
   See: HIV-discordant couple
 
serosorting  - 血清分类 
    When people of one status, HIV positive or HIV negative, actively seek out people with same HIV status for sexual or emotional relationships  
 
sex worker  - 性工作者 
    A person who performs sex for payment  
 
sexism  - 性别歧视 
    Discrimination against people because of their gender  
 
sexual transmission  - 性传播 
    Passing an infection from person to person through sexual contact  
 
sexually transmitted infection  - 性传染病 
    A disease transmitted through sexual contact; for example, gonorrhea, syphilis or chlamydiasis  
 
shingles  
   See: varicella zoster virus
 
side effect  - 副作用 
    A negative and unwanted effect of a drug on a body  
 
sperm washing  - 精液清洗 
    The chemical rinsing of sperm from an HIV-positive man to remove viruses before using it to inseminate his female partner  
 
spinal tap  
   See: lumbar puncture
 
statistical significance  - 统计意义 
    The probability that the result of a clinical trial is due to chance alone; in general, a result is statistically significant if there is less than 5% probability that the result would occur by chance alone regardless of the treatment studied; statistical significance is usually reported as a “p-value” of less than .05  
 
stavudine  
   See: d4T
 
STD  
   See: sexually transmitted infection
 
steroid  
   See: anabolic steroid
 
STI (sexually transmitted infection)  
   See: sexually transmitted infection
 
STI (structured treatment interruption)  
   See: drug holiday
 
stigma and discrimination  - 丑化与歧视 
    The fear, unfair treatment and rejection of people based on a single factor, such as being HIV positive  
 
strain  - 类型 
    A type or variety of HIV that has a distinct genetic code from other types of HIV  
 
street drug  
   See: recreational drug
 
street kid  
   See: street-involved youth
 
street-involved youth  - 街头青少年 
    Young people who live on the street, often with other street youth  
 
Streptococcus pneumoniae  - 链球菌肺炎 
    A bacterium that causes a common form of pneumonia, an infection of the lungs  
 
subcutaneous injection  - 皮下注射 
    A drug injection given just under the skin  
 
substance user  
   See: drug user
 
superinfection  - 重复感染 
    When a person with HIV is infected again, this time with a different strain of HIV  
 
supplement  - 补充剂 
    A vitamin or mineral taken along with a normal diet to make sure the body receives enough to function well  
 
Sustiva  
   See: efavirenz
 
syphilis  - 梅毒 
    A sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum; syphilis progresses through three stages, each more serious than the previous; in people with HIV/AIDS, syphilis may progress more rapidly and be resistant to treatment; penicillin is the usual treatment
T cells  - T淋巴细胞 
    White blood cells that play an important part in the immune system; the commonly measured T cells are CD4+ cells and CD8+ cells  
 
T-20  
   See: enfuvirtide
 
T4-cell count  
   See: CD4+ count
 
TB  
   See: tuberculosis
 
TCM  
   See: Traditional Chinese Medicine
 
TDM  
   See: therapeutic drug monitoring
 
tenofovir  - 替诺福伟 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; tenofovir is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI, nuke)  
 
testosterone  - 睾脂酮 
    A steroid hormone produced by the testes and adrenal glands; testosterone is the “male hormone” and is responsible for many male characteristics; testosterone levels are often low in HIV-positive men  
 
TFV  
   See: tenofovir
 
therapeutic drug monitoring  - 药物治疗监察 
    Measuring the level of a drug in a person’s blood during treatment; the goal is to ensure effective drug levels  
 
therapeutic vaccine  - 疫苗疗法 
    A vaccine given after infection to slow down or stop the disease by boosting the immune system  
 
thrush  
   See: oral candidiasis
 
tipranavir  - 非肽类蛋白酶抑制剂 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; tipranavir is a protease inhibitor (PI)  
 
topical administration  - 局部性用药 
    Applied to the skin (for example, as a cream or ointment)  
 
toxicity  - 毒性 
    The quality of being poisonous or harmful; often used to refer to side effects of drugs  
 
toxoplasmosis  - 弓浆虫病 
    An inflammation of the brain caused by a parasite; it may also affect the heart, lung, adrenal glands, pancreas and testicles  
 
TPV  
   See: tipranavir
 
Traditional Chinese Medicine  - 中医药 
    An Asian system of healing that focuses on achieving internal balance through acupuncture, heat application, herbal preparations and exercises to restore the flow of qi (vital energy) and the balance of yin and yang  
 
trans people  - 跨性者 
    People who feel that the gender they were assigned (usually at birth) is a false or incomplete description of themselves  
 
transcription  - 转录 
    The first step in making proteins in a cell; genetic information encoded in DNA is copied (or transcribed) to messenger RNA  
 
transexual  
   See: trans people
 
transgendered  
   See: trans people
 
treatment failure  - 治疗无效 
    When anti-HIV drugs cannot lower viral load or keep it low  
 
treatment interruption  - 治疗中断法 
    Stopping an anti-HIV drug regimen; see also drug holiday  
 
treatment preparedness  - 作好接受治疗准备 
    The idea that a person is ready to start taking anti-HIV drugs because they are aware of the importance of adherence and the possibility of side effects  
 
treatment simplification  - 简化治疗 
    Making a pill-taking regimen easier to follow by changing the number of pills to take or how often the pills are taken  
 
treatment-experienced patient  - 曾经接受治疗患者 
    An HIV-positive person who has taken at least one anti-HIV drug regimen  
 
treatment-naïve patient  - 从未接受治疗患者 
    An HIV-positive person who has never received anti-HIV drugs  
 
triglyceride level  - 三酸甘油脂水平 
    The amount of triglycerides in the blood; triglyceride is a fatty substance (lipid) that plays an important role in normal body functioning  
 
trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol (TMP-SMX)  
   See: Septra
 
Trizivir  - 三恊维(拉米夫定+齐多夫定+阿巴卡伟) 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; Trizivir is a combination of AZT, 3TC and abacavir, three drugs that are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nukes)  
 
trough level  - 低压糟水平 
    The lowest concentration of a drug in the body between dosages  
 
Truvada  - 替诺福伟核苷类似物复合剂 
    An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV infection; Truvada is a combination of FTC and tenofovir, two drugs that are nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, nukes)  
 
tuberculosis  - 结核病 
    A disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and usually affecting the lungs; tuberculosis is often passed from person to person breathing in air containing the bacteria  
 
tumour  
   See: cancer
undetectable viral load  - 病毒载量低于检测水平 
    A viral load that is below the level that a test can detect; depending on the test, undetectable viral loads are below 400 or 50 copies/ml  
 
unprotected sex  - 不安全性行为 
    Sex with no condom or other form of protection from disease and pregnancy  
vaccine  - 疫苗 
    A medicine that triggers the body’s immune system to prevent or fight an infection by a specific bacteria or virus; prophylactic vaccines protect against infection, while therapeutic vaccines boost the immune system to fight an infection that is already present  
 
vaginal candidiasis  - 阴道念珠菌感染 
    Infection of the vagina with a yeast-like fungus  
 
vaginal sex  - 阴道交 
    Sexual intercourse where the penis is inserted into the vagina  
 
varicella zoster virus  - 水痘病毒 
    A virus that initially causes chickenpox (varicella), usually in children; years later, it may reactivate and can cause shingles, especially in people with HIV  
 
venereal disease  
   See: sexually transmitted infection
 
vertical transmission  
   See: mother-to-child transmission
 
Videx  
   See: ddI
 
Videx EC  
   See: ddI
 
Viracept  
   See: nelfinavir
 
viral load test  - 病毒载量测试 
    A test that measures the amount of HIV in the blood; the two most commonly used viral load methods are PCR and bDNA  
 
viral reservoir  - 病毒贮主 
    A site in the body where HIV collects and multiplies, such as macrophages and lymph nodes  
 
Viramune  
   See: nevirapine
 
Viread  
   See: tenofovir
 
visceral leishmaniasis  - 脏腑莱什曼病 
    Infection of certain organs, including the liver, spleen and skin, by a parasite  
 
vitamin  - 维生素 
    An organic substance involved in metabolism; vitamins are crucial for staying healthy and keeping the immune system strong  
 
VL  
   See: viral load test
 
VZV  
   See: varicella zoster virus
wasting syndrome  - 虚损综合症 
    Severe weight loss  
 
western blot test  - 印迹测试 
    A laboratory test for antibodies against HIV and used to confirm a positive result of an ELISA test  
 
window period  - 窗口期 
    The time between being infected with HIV and the first appearance of antibodies in the blood; during the window period a person may test negative for HIV even though they have been infected with the virus  
yeast infection  - 酵母菌感染 
    Infection of the vagina with a yeast-like fungus
zalcitabine  
   See: ddC
 
ZDV  
   See: AZT
 
Zerit  
   See: d4T
 
Ziagen  
   See: abacavir
 
zidovudine  
   See: AZT

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