英汉同声传译的技巧

日期:2014-02-21 14:54:20    阅读:1800

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英汉同声传译的技巧:

  一、谓语动词的处理
  英语谓语动词一般不会构成同传的障碍,但特定类型的谓语如果处理得当,可以帮助搭好句子框架,减少接续困难,提高同传效率,减轻大脑负担。不少情况下,英语谓语由动词加名词构成,表示一个动词的意思,这时,我们可以将其译为动词,我们称之为词类转换。
  词类转换是笔译时经常提及的方法,在同传中更为常用。如果说词类转换是笔译时可供选择的手段,在同传中则是同传必不可少手段。例如:My delegation will show flexibility in the consultations on the program of work.笔译时既可译为“我国代表团在工作计划的磋商中将表现出灵活性”,也可以转换词类,译为“我国代表团将灵活地磋商工作计划”。在同传中如果采取前者,必定要将全句听完后再开始译,会造成翻译过度滞后,影响下一句的理解与表达;如果不适当地转换词类,开口就说出“我国代表团将表现出灵活性”,则往下接续就不大容易;如果采取后种译法,则可以紧跟原文顺序,作到几乎与原文同步结束,为下一句争取了宝贵的时间。从这个意义上讲,词类转换对同传更为重要。请看其它例句:
  (1)The multinational force is a concrete translation of the will of the international community that aggression stands to lose and that the use of force avails nothing but destruction.多国部队切实反映了国际社会的意愿,即侵略注定要失败,使用武力只能招致毁灭。(名词→动词)(笔译还可译为“……是国际社会意愿的切实反映……”)
  (2)The commitment to the free market has found its most forceful expression in the decision of the ASEAN leaders to establish an ASEAN Free Trade Area through the steady reduction and eventual elimination of trade barriers within ASEAN.对自由市场的承诺最有力地表现在东盟领导人决定建立东盟自由贸易区,办法是逐步削减并最终消除东盟内部的贸易壁垒。(名词→动词)(另请注意状语through…译法)
  其它如将to be the clear indicators of 译为“清楚地表明”;将to be clear evidence of 译为“清楚地证明”;将to generate the impetus译为“推动”等。
  为了能够达到顺译的目的,对谓语还可以进行其它类型的词类转换:
  (3)International order rests upon scrupulous observance, in letter and spirit, of the fundamental principles of non-use of force or threat of force. 国际秩序的基础是严格遵守、不折不扣地遵守不使用武力或和不以武力相威胁的根本原则。(动词→名词)
  (4)We should help in ways which are mutually beneficial to both developing and developed countries.我们援助的方法应同时有利于发展中国家和发达国家。(动词→名词,形容词→动词)
  英语被动语态谓语的处理也是同传的难点之一。被动句在笔译和交替传译时经常变为主动句译,如:
  But at the same time, many doubts have been raised about the capacity of the UN system to cope.可是同时,人们也提出了很多疑问:联合国系统究竟有多大的应付能力。
  这种方法同样适用于同传,但同传时为了达到顺译的目的,还可以采取其它一些变通方法,比如将谓语动词和主语合并译为名词短语作汉语主语:
  (1)The economic freedom was provided by breaking up large concentration of power.经济自由的获得是因为打破了高度集中的权力。
  (2)Many of these problems can be addressed by improving the rural land system.其中很多问题的解决,要靠改善农村的土地制度。(或……要得到解决,必须改善……)
  (3)The Philippine economy is ruled no longer by the tyranny of excessive regulation or of corporate monopoly but by the invigorating regime of market forces and free competition.菲律宾的经济已不再遭受过度管制或公司垄断,而是充满了市场力量和自由竞争机制的活力。(形象化的语言可以只译主要意思)
  (4)Hence, democratization must be accompanied by sustained efforts to further the cause of human dignity and freedom. 因此,搞民主化的同时必须不断努力推进促进人类尊严和自由的事业。
  二、定语的处理方法
  除单词和较短的片语外,英语的定语通常在后,汉语一般在前。将英语的后置定语译为中文时理应调整语序,使之符合汉语表达习惯。笔译时无时间限制,可以先译后面,再译前面,通盘安排语序。而同声传译时由于无法预见定语,已经将定语之前的部分先行译出;或者知道有定语,但定语过长,译完定语再译中心词有可能将中心词忘掉,这时,我们就需要通过灵活变通的办法,在不对原文语序作重大调整的情况下,将定语在中心词之后译出。综合起来,可以应用以下几种手段:
  1、独立成句
  (1)This has been a major engine of economic growth comparable to the earlier experiences in South East Asian neighboring countries.这大大带动了经济增长,类似于东南亚各国早期的发展历程。
  (2)Our foreign secretary on one occasion spelt out our objectives in terms of three quite simple principles which I think are still true.我们的外务大臣有一次清楚地讲述了我们的目标,它包括三项简单的原则,我想现在还适用。
  2、译为“使之……”
  (3) We should look for policies which help and do not harm our neighbors.我们应当寻求各种政策,使之帮助而非损害我们的邻国。
  (4)Unlike other economies, we do not have the luxury of opening an exchange which will grow and change as the economy grows.不象其它经济体,我们不可能开办一个证交所,使之随着经济的发展而发展变化。(另请注意加点部分的译法,原文形象丢失)
  (5)It is true that liberalization of foreign exchange controls is required, but promotion of the entry of foreign capital which matches national policies is also required.不错,放松外汇管制是必要的,但促进外资流入,使之配合国家政策,也是必要的。
  3、译为“如果”、“只要”
  (6)I believe that the history of economic development since the War demonstrates that those political systems which provide maximum freedom for the private sector and which have encouraged, rather than restricted, trade and development have done best.我相信,战后经济发展史表明,政治体制只要最大限度地给予私有部门自由,只要鼓励,而非限制贸易与投资,便是最为成功的。
  4、重复中心词
  (7)As in the past, so also in the future, Pakistan will extend its whole-hearted co-operation to all other states in common efforts aimed realizing the ideals that inspired the establishment of UN. 如同过去一样,在未来,巴基斯坦将与其它国家全心合作,共同努力,实现这种理想,这种激励联合国成立的理想。
  (8)The sanctions regime which the Security Council Imposed on Iraq actually has no parallel in the history of the United Nations.这一制裁体制,联合国对伊拉克的制裁体制,在联合国的历史上是前所未有的。
  (9)As a matter of fact, the Security Council Committee established by resolution 661(1990) to oversee the strict implementation of the sanctions regime has not to date reported any violations of the sanctions.事实上,安理会委员会,即依照661(1990)号决议成立,用以监督严格实施制裁体制的委员会,迄今为止还没有报道过违反制裁的情况。
  上述译法在同传中相当普遍,虽然它有时不太符合汉语习惯,但对意思没有损害。这种译法的好处是可以紧跟原文,将经过大脑的信息迅速处理掉,使之不妨碍下面的理解与翻译。另外,先大声将中心词译出可以加强记忆,不致于在定语译出后被忘记,从而减轻了大脑的记忆负担。但有时上述处理方法失灵,就必须将中心词留待定语后译出,与交替传译或笔译相同。如:
  (10)A fifth weakness related to the conditions under which foreign financial institutions operate in the Peoples Republic of China. 第五个弱点是外国金融机构在中国运作的条件。
  (11)The way in which this crisis will be resolved will therefore definitely affect the nature and future of international economic and political relations.如何解决这次危机将毫无疑问地影响到国际政治经济关系的性质和未来。
  5、中心词和定语可以合并构成完整的句子
  (12) At the conclusion of the Paris Summit last week, a momentous declaration marked the end of the cold war, an era in contemporary history characterized mainly by ideological and military confrontation between the two competing blocks.巴黎首脑会议上周结束时产生了一份重大宣言,它标志着冷战的结束。当代历史上的这一时代曾充满了意识形态和军事对抗,它发生在两个竞争的集团之间。
  (13) Assistance is also needed for the million and half refugees in Pakistan who are still unable to return to their homeland, pending the creation of conducive economic and political conditions. 还需要提供援助,帮助一百五十万阿富汗难民。他们被困在巴基斯坦,不能返回自己的家园,因为那里还缺乏有利的政治经济条件。(另请注意本句照顾到语序根据意思作的添加)
  6、译为插入成分
  (14) It is not being reported in the press, but many Iraqi and foreign ships sailing to and from Iraqi and Kuwaiti ports are being stopped and searched on the high seas or at nearby ports in order to ascertain that no violations of the sanctions are taking place.报纸上没有报道,但有很多伊拉克和外国船只──它们来往于伊拉克和科威特港口──受到了拦截和搜查,以确保没有违反制裁的情况发生。
  7、加动词,变为汉语的目的状语
  (15) The sixth weakness that I like to highlight relates to the lack of a well developed regulatory and supervisory framework for banks and non-bank institutions.我想指出的第六个弱点是缺乏发育完善的监管机制,来监督与管理银行和非银行金融机构。
  (16) Work on the development of a common code and operating procedure for all personnel servicing under the UN flag should be brought to an early conclusion.制定一套行为准则和行动程序,以指导所有联合国人员,这一工作应当早日结束。(另请注意将work留待稍后译出;flag的形象丢失)
  8、译为“比如说”,表示列举
  (17) But while the opportunities for cooperation have never been greater, the challenges to the international community posed by regional conflicts, humanitarian crisis and unresolved transnational problems have also never been greater.虽然合作的机会从来没有这么大,但国际社会面临的挑战,比如说地区冲突、人道主义危机和悬而未决的跨国问题,也从来没有这么大过。
  以上是英语较长的后置定语在同传中的基本处理技巧,对于前置定语或较短的后置定语,同传中一般不构成问题,通常译为汉语的前置定语,这里就不多谈。下面我们看一下英语较长的后置状语在同传中的处理技巧。

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