北京翻译公司教你利用网络提高翻译质量

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:2667

北京天译时代翻译公司精品翻译文章导读:

利用网络提高翻译质量的主要方法如下:

(1)搜寻多种参考译文,对比不同译文,取长补短,发展批判性思维,以便提高自己的译文质量。
(2)寻找网上有关译文的评论,进一步发进一步进行分析判断。
(3)利用电脑WORD 功能,搜寻同义词,选择适合有关语境的高雅词汇,提高文学翻译的质量。
(4)利用Google,查询词组搭配的频率,以确定其正确性和地道程度。
(5)利用Google确定语法结构的正确性或常用程度。

原汉语如下: (暮色中,河湾里落满云霞,与天际的颜色混合在一起, 分不清哪是流云哪是水湾。) 也就在这一幅绚烂的图画旁边,在河湾之畔,一群羊正在低头觅食。它们几乎没有一个顾得上抬起头来,看一眼这美丽的黄昏。也许它们要抓紧时间,在即将回家的最后一刻再次咀嚼。这是黄河滩上的一幕。牧羊人不见了,他不知在何处息。只有这些生灵自由自在地享受着这个黄昏。这儿水草肥美,让它们长得肥滚滚的。如果走近了,你会发现它们洁白的牙齿,以及那丰富而单纯的表情。

一,首先使用第一招:利用网络搜索各种译文

 网上译文1 (笔者修改了个别不值得评论的明显笔误): 
        Beside this picture with profusions of colors,a group of sheep are lowing their heads,eating by the river bank.Hardly any of them would spare some time to raise their eyes to have a glance at the beautiful dusk.They are, perhaps,taking use of every mi-nute to enjoy their last chew before being driven home.This is a picture of the YellowRiver bank,inwhichthe shepherd disappe-ars,and no one knows where he is resting himself.Only the sheep,however,as free creatures,are joyfully appreciating the dus-k.The exuberant water plants have nurtured the sheep, making them grow as fat as balls. When approaching near,you would find their lily-white teeth and a variety of innocent facial expressions. 
 

 网上译文2 (官方译文) 
        It is by the riverside, which itself makes really imposing scenery, that the flock of sheep were grazing silently. Almost none
of them had any time to raise their heads to take a look at the beautiful dusk. Perhaps theywere losing no time to take a last chew before returning home. This is what happened on the bank of the Yellow River, where there was no sign of the shepherd. No one knewwhere he was resting, and the creatures were left alone to enjoy the dusk. Here the water was abundant and the grass luxuriant, which made the sheep grow fat. If approaching, you could find theirwhite teeth, aswell as their rich but unso-phisticated expressions. 
 

网上译文3: 
        (At dusk, when the inlet is filled by setting clouds with their colors blended so seamlessly into the horizon afar, all distin-ctions between the fleeing clouds and the inlet below cease to exist.) Just a tad off this splendid natural scene is a sheep herd that wanders around the river bank for an evening browse. They hardly ever bothered to look up over their heads to have glim-pses of this beautiful sunset. Perhaps they have no time for anything other than the last morsels before heading back to their corral. This is staple at the shores of the (upper) Yellow River. Nowhere to be seen is the sheep-herder, and unknown is his reposing place. These beautiful creatures alone are here to have unlimited enjoyment in the sunset. So succulent is the riparian vegetation that the sheep thus fed are plump, much like chubby boys. At close proximity, their lovely eyes, snow white teeth, rich yet innocent looks become ever more apparent. 
 

二,寻找网上有关译文的评论,进一步发进一步进行分析判断

网友的贴子,对译文1提出了批评意见,如: 
        (1) profusion是不可数名词。 
        (2) group虽然勉强可用,但专八应该考是否会用flock或herd这些字。 
        (3) approaching已经是靠近,不用加near。 
        (4)八级的“吃草”应该用grazing, 一级才叫eating。

三,利用电脑WORD 功能,搜寻同义词,选择适合有关语境的高雅词汇,提高文学翻译的质量。 
 

 鉴于以上翻译属文学翻译,“绚烂的图画”如果仅仅译成简单的beautiful picture,似乎文学味不足。译文2、3分别选用了imposing和splendid。但是否还有其他译法呢?我们可利用电脑中WORD的功能来查找同义词、相关词,其速度很快,转眼之间即可查到。例如,选中涂黑imposing后,在“工具栏”中选择“语言”,进而选择“同义词库”,得到一列同义或相关词汇,最后从各种同义词中选择自己认为适当的词汇。在imposing处可发现impressive, magnificent, grand等可替换的词汇。Splendid的同义词有superb, impressive, marve-lous, magnificent等。此外,学生还可在独立思考的基础上,借助电脑改进译文。例如,学生很容易想到bea-utiful一词,然后可查到gorgeous, lovely, picturesque, charming, wonderful, magnificent, superb等。如果过去曾在精读或文学作品中看到过gorgeous sunset/ scene这些词组,这时原来的消极知识便被激活了,从而用于改进自己的译文。还有些学生读到了原文中的“云霞”、“颜”、“绚烂的图画”等词组后,想到color, colorful clouds等单词。但在文学翻译中不妨选用符合上下文的高雅词语。这时学生可查找color的同义词。在电脑同义词库的提示下,可能会想到tint 是一个适合以上语境的高水平用词。选择同义词可多次进行。可在已被选到的tint的基础上,再选其同义词,这时又可发现另一个适合于文学翻译的同义词hue。 
        以上学生的选词过程可总结为:颜色— color — tint—hue。用同样办法可查出colorful的同义词:multi-colored, multi- hued。(但有些同义词,如gaudy,不适合以上语境。所以使用同义词库仍应以一定的语言功底为基础。) 现如要翻译以上“绚烂的图画”中的“图画”,也可采用相似的办法。可先参考网上译文所使用的scenery、picture等词汇,然后在电脑同义词库中可找出以下适当的替代词汇: sce-nery ,landscape, panorama, view, backdrop, background—scene;picture—image, portrait 在文学翻译中应避免重复用词,以体现词语的多样性。原汉语中开始处有“暮色”,随后同义词“黄昏”出现了两次, 如果都译成dusk,则英译文显得单调。根据前面的办法,我们可选用一些同义词,如twilight, sunset, sundown,或when the sun is setting等。“美丽的黄昏”可译成the gorgeous/ magnificent  twilight/ sunset等。 
 

四,利用Google,查询词组搭配的频率,以确定其正确性和地道程度。

在Google中调查英语搭配是否常用、地道有时仅依靠WORD的同义词库还不够,还需要到Google 中开展调查。例如网上译文1提供了profusions of colors的译法;网友又提出了批评意见,认为不应使用复数profusions。究竟应使用profusions of colors还是a profusion of colors?有时在非重点院校没人有把握回答此问题,这时不妨求助网络资源。在Google的检索框中输入以下两个带双引号的词组,可立即查出它们的出现频率:“a profusion of colors”:11,200 “profusions of colors”:3 进一步查看“profusions of colo-rs”出现的语境,全部是2007年的八级考试参考译文。换言之,没有一个英语本族人用过profusions of colors这个词组。于是,我们的学生便可纠正网上提供的译文,改用a profusion of colors。网上参考译文中出现了a group of sheep、the flock of sheep、a sheep herd三种译法。采用group明显用词过嫩。由于羊群首次出现,似乎定冠词the也不妥。那么该使用flock 还是herd,还是两者均可呢? Google的检索结果如下: 
        “a flock of sheep”:279,000 
        “a herd of sheep”: 58,000 
        “a sheep herd”:  5,800 
        可见flock是首选词,herd也正确。如果对herd的使用没有把握,可检查被检索出的各项中是否有英语本族人写的文章。如有,就是可靠的。如果有条件,还可到英美报刊的数据库中去检索。笔者搜索了1980年以来的The New York Times数据库,发现了以下结果: 
        “a flock of sheep”:19 
        “a herd of sheep”:16 
        “a sheep herd”: 1 
        根据北京翻译公司的实践,在Google上检索出的结果与在The New York Times中的检索结果基本相符。虽然Google上有非本族英语者撰写的文章,但绝大多数文章的英文质量是好的,所以Google上的检查结果基本可靠。由于中国学生通常无法进入英语国家的数据库,所以查询Google也不失为一种简便可行的办法。 
 

五,利用Google确定语法结构的正确性或常用程度。

在Google中调查英语语法结构是否正确、常用鉴于网上译文3使用了大量的倒装句,文笔显得十分老练,我们也不妨模仿一下,例如,我们不一定要写A flock of sheep was/were grazing on the river bank, with their heads bent down。学生可模仿网上的倒装句型,写成On the river bank was/were a flock of sheep grazing with their heads bent down. 与a flock of sheep连用的动词究竟应使用复数、单数或 两者皆可?如果考虑到sheep是复数,似应使用were;但如以flock为中心名词,则应使用单数的was。如果师生均无把握, 不妨依靠网络资源: 
        “a flock of sheep was”2,080 
        “a flock of sheep were”3,150 
        以上数据表明,两者都比较常用,复数略占优势。但在倒装句中的情况就不同了。检索时,需要注意技巧。以下两个词组太长,检索结果为零,不能说明问题。 “on the river bank were a flock of sheep”0 “on the river bank was a flock of sheep”0 将词组缩短后的检索结果如下: 
        “were a flock of sheep”6,710 
        “was a flock of sheep“34,100 
        但以上检索结果是不可靠的,因为were/was的前部是开放的。如果全句是Thewhite dots on the grasslandwere a flock of sheep,那就不能说明a flock of sheep应与were连用。因此,我们一方面要尽量使用短词组,另一方面要对词组予以封闭。以下添加there一个词,既达到封闭的效果,又避免词组过长: 
        “there was a flock of sheep”18,200 
        “there were a flock of sheep”0 
        检索结果表明,不应使用复数的were。通过以上对电脑网络资源的充分利用,现我们不妨将以上第一句“也就在这一幅绚烂的图画旁边,在河湾之畔,一群羊正在低头觅食”改译如下: Beside this multi-hued/multi- colored/splendid/gorgeous/magnificent scene/ view/l andscape/  panorama (Beside this scene with a profusion of colors), on the river bank, was a flock of sheep grazing with their heads bent down. 
        此外,对于原汉语结尾处的“如果走近了”,网上译文有 “When approaching near”和“If approaching”。此外,还有人译为
“If approaching them”。除了near可删除外,究竟应使用及物 动词还是不及物动词?应使用If还是When? Google检索结果如下: 
        If approaching 54,400 
        以上调查结果不可靠,因为approaching后部没有封闭, 所检索的54, 400项包括了及物与不及物两者,如If approaching from the south和If approaching margin limits.添加逗号也无效,因为Google检索中不考虑逗号。所检索的“If approaching, you”实际上包括了“If approaching you,…”。如果在you后面添加will,便有了明确结构: 
        If approaching, you will:0 
        If approaching, you can:0 
        If approaching them/it/him, you can/will 0 
        可见使用If approaching,的可能性不大。现改用When: 
        When approaching, you will:2 
        When approaching, you can:7 
        可见approaching可作不及物动词用,但频率不高。以下观察approaching作及物动词使用的情况。 
        When approaching them, you can:1 
        When approaching it, you can:1 
        但将代词换成各种名词后,会有大量宾语,可见approaching作及物动词的频率高。 
        结论:译文中使用When approaching them较好。虽然网络电脑能帮助我们改进翻译教学,提高翻译质量,但毕竟翻译是一门艺术,还有大量网络技术不能解决的问题。我们请教了一位本族英语教师,他认为删除When和If更好:-Approaching them, you will see their white teeth… 

最终利用网络翻译的文章如下:

At dusk, on the surface of the distant river bend were colorful clouds, which blended/mixedwith (merged into) the tints of the sky on the horizon, making it difficult to distinguish (draw a distinction) between the clouds and the river. Beside this many-hued/multi-hued/multi-colored/splendid/ gorgeous/magnificent scene/view/landscape/panorama, on the river bank, was a flock of sheep grazing with their heads bent down. They could hardly afford the time to raise their heads to cast a glance at the gor-geous sunset. Perhaps theywere seizing the time to take last bites/chews before going home/being driven home. That was a scene on the bank of the YellowRiver. The shepherd was not in sight, and nobody knew where he was resting. Only those ani-mals /creatures were freely enjoying the twilight. Thanks to the plentiful water and luxuriant/lush/flourishing/exuberant grass,they had grown fat. Approaching them, you would see (A closer look/ inspectionwould reveal) their white teeth as well as their rich but mindless (unsophisticated/ vacant/ innocent) expressions. 

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