汉语与英语翻译中的词类转换

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:2007

北京天译时代翻译公司精品翻译知识导读:

在汉英翻译中可进行各种词类的转换,例如: 汉语动词转换成英语名词、形容词、介词;汉语形容词或副词转换成英语名词;汉语名词转换成英语动词等等。其中,汉语动词转换成英语抽象名词尤为普遍。高校常用的翻译教材,如张培基、吕瑞昌、冯庆华等编撰的翻译教材均将这种转换列在第一位。请看以下各例:


  例1. 中国政府承诺不对无核国家使用核武器。
  如不注意词性转换,译文可能是:

  The Chinese government undertakes not to use (that it will not use) nuclear weapons against non-nuclear countries.
  这种译文显得有些口语化,不够庄重。不如改用抽象名词non-use:
  The Chinese government undertakes non-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear countries.


  例2. 禁止任何叛国、分裂国家、煽动叛乱及窃取国家机密的行为。
  译文一:To prohibit any act of treason, acts to split the country, incite rebellion and steal secrets.
  译文二:To prohibit any act of treason, secession, sedition and theft of state secrets.
  以上译文一使用 split , incite, steal 等动词虽然语义正确,但似乎不够庄重。译文二使用抽象名词,因而显得文字严谨,适合正式法律条文的风格。


  例3. 技术引进合同应当订明下列事项:引进技术的保密义务,改进技术的归属和分享。
  译文一:Provisions on the obligation to keep confidential the imported technology, and ownership of the right to copy any improvements made to the technology.
  译文二:Provisions on the confidentiality obligation as regards the imported technology, and ownership of the right to copy any improvements made to the technology.
  对于"保密"这一动作译文一使用相应的动词 keeping confidential,显得过于口语化。译文二转用英语抽象名词confidentiality,在法律文件中显得较为得体。


  例4. 这次十三届八中全会开得好。
  译文一:The recent Eighth Plenary Session of the Thirteen Central Committee was a successful meeting.
  译文二:The recent Eighth Plenary Session of the 13th CPC Central Committee was a success.
  会"开得好"很少有人直译为动词 was well conducted。
  以上译文一使用具体名词 a successful meeting 比较常见;译文二则将其浓缩为一个名词 success,更为简练。

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