极具珍藏价值的翻译方法 (续2)

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:1709

北京天译时代翻译公司精品翻译知识导读:

4.拆句法和合并法(和唐静老师的很想象):这是两种相对应的翻译方法。拆句法是把一个长而复杂的句子拆译成若干个较短、较简单的句子,通常用于英译汉;合并法是把若干个短句合并成一个长句,一般用于汉译英。汉语强调意合,结构较松散,因此简单句较多;英语强调形合,结构较严密,因此长句较多。所以汉译英时要根据需要注意利用连词、分词、介词、不定式、定语从句、独立结构等把汉语短句连成长句;而英译汉时又常常要在原句的关系代词、关系副词、主谓连接处、并列或转折连接处、后续成分与主体的连接处,以及意群结束处将长句切断,译成汉语分句。这样就可以基本保留英语语序,顺译全句,顺应现代汉语长短句相替、单复句相间的句法修辞原则。如:

(1) Increased cooperation with China is in the interests of the United States.

同中国加强合作,符合美国的利益。 (在主谓连接处拆译)

(2) I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality for which the Chinese people are justly famous throughout the world.

我要感谢你们无与伦比的盛情款待。中国人民正是以这种热情好客而闻明世界的。(在定语从句前拆译)

(3) This is particularly true of the countries of the commonwealth, who see Britain's membership of the Community a guarantee that the policies of the community will take their interests into account

英联邦各国尤其如此,它们认为英国加入欧共体,将能保证欧共体的政策照顾到它们的利益。(在定语从句前拆译)

(4)中国是个大国,百分之八十的人口从事农业,但耕地只占土地面积的十分之一,其余为山脉、森林、城镇和其他用地。

China is a large country with four-fifths of the population engaged in agriculture, but only one tenth of the land is farmland, the rest being mountains, forests and places for urban and other uses.(合译)

5.正译法和反译法:这两种方法通常用于汉译英,偶尔也用于英译汉。所谓正译,是指把句子按照与汉语相同的语序或表达方式译成英语。所谓反译则是指把句子按照与汉语相反的语序或表达方式译成英语。正译与反译常常具有同义的效果,但反译往往更符合英语的思维方式和表达习惯。因此比较地道。如:

(1)在美国,人人都能买到枪。

In the United States, everyone can buy a gun. (正译)

In the United States, guns are available to everyone. (反译)

(2)你可以从因特网上获得这一信息。

You can obtain this information on the Internet. (正译)

This information is accessible/available on the Internet. (反译)

(3)他突然想到了一个新主意。

Suddenly he had a new idea. (正译)

He suddenly thought out a new idea. (正译)

A new idea suddenly occurred to/struck him. (反译)

(4)他仍然没有弄懂我的意思。

He still could not understand me. (正译)

Still he failed to understand me. (反译)

(5)无论如何,她算不上一位思维敏捷的学生。

She can hardly be rated as a bright student. (正译)

She is anything but a bright student. (反译)

(6) Please withhold the document for the time being.

请暂时扣下这份文件。(正译)

请暂时不要发这份文件。(反译)

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