(1)英语原文中的主语在译文中仍做主语。在采用此方法时,我们往往在译文中使用了“加以”, “经过”, “用……来”等词来体现原文中的被动含义。例如:
例1. Other questions will be discussed briefly.
例2. In other words mineral substances which are found on earth must be extracted by digging, boring holes, artificial explosions, or similar operations which make them available to us.
例3. Nuclear power\'s danger to health, safety, and even life itself can be summed up in one word: radiation.
核能对健康、安全,甚至对生命本身构成的危险可以用一个词 - 辐射来概括。
例1. It could be argued that the radio performs this service as well, but on television everything is much more living, much more real.
例2. Television, it is often said, keeps one informed about current events, allows one to follow the latest developments in science and politics, and offers an endless series of programmes which are both instructive and entertaining. (85年考题)
例3. It is generally accepted that the experiences of the child in his first years largely determine his character and later personality.
It is asserted that …有人主张……
It is believed that …有人认为……
It is generally considered that …大家(一般人)认为
It is well known that …大家知道(众所周知)……
It will be said …有人会说……
It was told that …有人曾经说……
(3)将英语原文中的by, in, for等做状语的介词短语翻译成译文的主语,在此情况下,英语原文中的主语一般被翻译成宾语。例如:
例1. A right kind of fuel is needed for an atomic reactor.
例2. By the end of the war, 800 people had been saved by the organization, but at a cost of 200 Belgian and French lives.
例3. And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training. (93年考题)
例1. Great efforts should be made to inform young people especially the dreadful consequences of taking up the habit.
例2. By this procedure, different honeys have been found to vary widely in the sensitivity of their inhibit to heat.
例4. Many strange new means of transport have been developed in our century, the strangest of them being perhaps the hovercraft.
例5. New source of energy must be found, and this will take time….
It is hoped that …希望……
It is reported that …据报道……
It is said that …据说……
It is supposed that …据推测……
It may be said without fear of exaggeration that …可以毫不夸张地说……
It must be admitted that …必须承认……
It must be pointed out that …必须指出……
It will be seen from this that …由此可见……
例1. The decision to attack was not taken lightly.
例2. On the whole such an conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the other with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant information which they possessed. (92年考题)
2.译成汉语的被动语态。英语中的许多被动句可以翻译成汉语的被动句。常用“被”, “给”, “遭”, “挨”, “为……所”, “使”, “由…”, “受到”等表示。例如:
例1. Early fires on the earth were certainly caused by nature, not by Man.
例2. These signals are produced by colliding stars or nuclear reactions in outer space.
例3. Natural light or “white” light is actually made up of many colours.
例4. The behaviour of a fluid flowing through a pipe is affected by a number of factors, including the viscosity of the fluid and the speed at which it is pumped.
例5. They may have been a source of part of the atmosphere of the terrestrial planets, and they are believed to have been the planetesimal-like building blocks for some of the outer planets and their satellites.
例6. Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers of science. (95年考题)
例7. Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa (反之) often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force. (95年考题)
例8. The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use.