极具珍藏价值的翻译方法 (续3)

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:1777

北京天译时代翻译公司精品翻译知识导读:

二、被动语态译法

英语中被动语态的使用范围极为广泛,尤其是在科技英语中,被动语态几乎随处可见,凡是在不必、不愿说出或不知道主动者的情况下均可使用被动语态,因此,掌握被动语态的翻译方法,对于硕士研究生入学考试的复习与应考是极为重要的,因为在硕士研究生入学考试中,英译汉文章的内容多以科普文章为主。在汉语中,也有被动语态,通常通过“把”或“被”等词体现出来,但它的使用范围远远小于英语中被动语态的使用范围,因此英语中的被动语态在很多情况下都翻译成主动结构。对于英语原文的被动结构,我们一般采取下列的方法:

1.翻译成汉语的主动句。英语原文的被动结构翻译成汉语的主动结构又可以进一步分为几种不同的情况。

(1)英语原文中的主语在译文中仍做主语。在采用此方法时,我们往往在译文中使用了“加以”, “经过”, “用……来”等词来体现原文中的被动含义。例如:

例1. Other questions will be discussed briefly.

其它问题将简单地加以讨论。

例2. In other words mineral substances which are found on earth must be extracted by digging, boring holes, artificial explosions, or similar operations which make them available to us.

换言之,矿物就是存在于地球上,但须经过挖掘、钻孔、人工爆破或类似作业才能获得的物质。

例3. Nuclear power\'s danger to health, safety, and even life itself can be summed up in one word: radiation.

核能对健康、安全,甚至对生命本身构成的危险可以用一个词 - 辐射来概括。

(2)将英语原文中的主语翻译为宾语,同时增补泛指性的词语(人们,大家等)作主语。例如:

例1. It could be argued that the radio performs this service as well, but on television everything is much more living, much more real.

可能有人会指出,无线电广播同样也能做到这一点,但还是电视屏幕上的节目要生动、真实得多。

例2. Television, it is often said, keeps one informed about current events, allows one to follow the latest developments in science and politics, and offers an endless series of programmes which are both instructive and entertaining. (85年考题)

人们常说,电视使人了解时事,熟悉政治领域的最新发展变化,并能源源不断地为观众提供各种既有教育意义又有趣的节目。

例3. It is generally accepted that the experiences of the child in his first years largely determine his character and later personality.

人们普遍认为,孩子们的早年经历在很大程度上决定了他们的性格及其未来的人品。

另外,下列的结构也可以通过这一手段翻译:

It is asserted that …有人主张……

It is believed that …有人认为……

It is generally considered that …大家(一般人)认为

It is well known that …大家知道(众所周知)……

It will be said …有人会说……

It was told that …有人曾经说……

(3)将英语原文中的by, in, for等做状语的介词短语翻译成译文的主语,在此情况下,英语原文中的主语一般被翻译成宾语。例如:

例1. A right kind of fuel is needed for an atomic reactor.

原子反应堆需要一种合适的燃料。

例2. By the end of the war, 800 people had been saved by the organization, but at a cost of 200 Belgian and French lives.

大战结束时,这个组织拯救了八百人,但那是以二百多比利时人和法国人的生命为代价的。

例3. And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training. (93年考题)

许多人认为,普通人的思维活动根本无法与科学家的思维过程相比,而且认为这些思维过程必须经过某种专门的训练才能掌握。

(4)翻译成汉语的无主句。例如:

例1. Great efforts should be made to inform young people especially the dreadful consequences of taking up the habit.

应该尽最大努力告? nbsp|年轻人吸烟的危害,特别是吸上烟瘾后的可怕后果。(82年考题)

例2. By this procedure, different honeys have been found to vary widely in the sensitivity of their inhibit to heat.

通过这种方法分析发现不同种类的蜂蜜的抗菌活动对热的敏感程度也极为不同。

例4. Many strange new means of transport have been developed in our century, the strangest of them being perhaps the hovercraft.

在我们这个世纪内研制了许多新奇的交通工具,其中最奇特的也许就是气垫船了。

例5. New source of energy must be found, and this will take time….

必须找到新的能源,这需要时间……(91年考题)

另外,下列结构也可以通过这一手段翻译:

It is hoped that …希望……

It is reported that …据报道……

It is said that …据说……

It is supposed that …据推测……

It may be said without fear of exaggeration that …可以毫不夸张地说……

It must be admitted that …必须承认……

It must be pointed out that …必须指出……

It will be seen from this that …由此可见……

(5)翻译成带表语的主动句。例如:

例1. The decision to attack was not taken lightly.

进攻的决定不是轻易作出的。

例2. On the whole such an conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the other with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant information which they possessed. (92年考题)

总的来说,得出这种结论是有一定程度把握的,但必须具备两个条件:能够假定这个孩子对测试的态度和与他比较的另一个孩子的态度相同;他也没有因为缺乏别的孩子已掌握的有关知识而被扣分。

(注意上述翻译技巧在该句翻译中的综合运用。)

2.译成汉语的被动语态。英语中的许多被动句可以翻译成汉语的被动句。常用“被”, “给”, “遭”, “挨”, “为……所”, “使”, “由…”, “受到”等表示。例如:

例1. Early fires on the earth were certainly caused by nature, not by Man.

地球上早期的火肯定是由大自然而不是人类引燃的。

例2. These signals are produced by colliding stars or nuclear reactions in outer space.

这些讯号是由外层空间的星球碰撞或者核反应所造成的。

例3. Natural light or “white” light is actually made up of many colours.

自然光或者“白光”实际上是由许多种颜色组成的。

例4. The behaviour of a fluid flowing through a pipe is affected by a number of factors, including the viscosity of the fluid and the speed at which it is pumped.

流体在管道中流动的情况,受到诸如流体粘度、泵送速度等各种因素的影响。

例5. They may have been a source of part of the atmosphere of the terrestrial planets, and they are believed to have been the planetesimal-like building blocks for some of the outer planets and their satellites.

它们可能一直是地球行星的一部分大气的来源。它们还被认为是构成外部行星以及其卫星的一种类似微星的基础材料。

例6. Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers of science. (95年考题)

工具和技术本身作为根本性创新的源泉多年来在很大程度上被科学史学家和科学思想家们忽视了。

例7. Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa (反之) often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force. (95年考题)

政府是以减少技术的经费投入来增加纯理论科学的经费投入,还是相反,这往往取决于把哪一方看作是驱动的力量。

例8. The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use.

石油的供应可能随时会被中断;不管怎样,以目前的这种消费速度,只需30年左右,所有的油井都会枯竭。

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