阅读一遍就能牢记的语法大全15

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:1773

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 动词常和某些其他词类用在一起,构成固定词组,形成所谓短语动词(phrasal verb)。和动词一样,短语动词也可分为及物和不及物两种。短语动词可以作为一个整体看待,同一般动词一样使用。

1)动词 + 介词 这类短语动词用作及物动词,后面须跟宾语。如:
The small boy insisted on going with his parents.那男孩坚持要跟父母一起去。
Do you often listen to broadcasts in English? 你常听英语广播吗?
Look at the children. Aren't they lovely?看着这些孩子们。他们多么可爱呀!
We stand for self-reliance.我们是主张自力更生的。
这一类的短语动词还有很多,如depend on (upon)(依*),wait on (服侍),look for (寻找),deal with(对待),look after(照料),wait for(等待)等。
2) 动词+副词 这类短语动词有的用作及物动词,有的用作不及物动词。如:
I always get up as soon as the bell rings. 我总是一打铃就起床。(不及物)
Look out,there's a car coming! 当心,来汽车了!(不及物)
Have you handed in your exercises already? 你已经交练习了吗?(及物)
Please don't forget to put on your coat;it's cold outside.请不要忘记穿外衣,外面很冷。(及物)
这一类的短语动词还有很多,及物如 put out (扑灭), eat up (吃光),putdown(放下);不及物如set off (出发),come up(走近),go on(继续)。
[注一] "动词+副词"这类短语动词和上面第一类"动词 + 介词"的不同之处在于:"动词+ 介词"用作及物动词,后面须跟宾语。"动词 + 副词"则有的及物,有的不及物;用作及物动词而宾语为人称代词或自身代词时,副词往往放在宾语之后。如:
Please wake me up at five tomorrow.请在明天早上五点唤醒我。
If you have done your exercises,please hand them in.如果你们练习做完了请交来。
She doesn't normally behave like that;she's putting it on.她通常并不如此表现,她是装出来的。
[注二] 这类短语动词有不少可兼作及物和不及物动词用。如:
He took off his hat when he entered the office.
他进办公室后脱下帽子。(及物)
The plane took off at seven sharp.
飞机在七点整起飞。(不及物)
Charlie rang up Neil to ask about the time of the meeting.
查理打电话给尼尔问开会的时间。(及物)
If you can't come,please ring up and let us know.你如来不了,请来电话告诉我们一声。(不及物)
3) 动词 + 副词 + 介词 短语动词"动词 + 副词"之后有的可以再加一个介词,形成另一种短语动词。这类短语动词用作及物动词。如:
Do not give up hope. We must go on with the experiment
不要失望。我们必须继续试验。(go on with继续)
He came up to me.他走到我跟前。(come up to走近)
这类短语动词还有:look down upon(看不起),do away with(去掉),put up with(忍受)等。
4)动词 + 名词 + 介词 这类短语动词也是及物的。如
He shook hands with all the guests at the banquet.他在宴会上和宾客一一握手。
Young pioneers often come to the Children's Palace to take part in after=school activities. 少先队员经常到少年宫来参加课外活动。
Pay attention to the temperature of the stored rice.注意仓库里的稻谷的温度。
Her job is taking care of the babies.她的工作是照顾婴儿。
这一类短语动词还有:put an end to (结束),take notice of (注意),catch hold of (抓住),lose sight of(看不见),make use of(利用)等。
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