主谓一致

日期:2009-10-15 10:20:35    阅读:2570

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 英语中,句子的谓语动词必须在人称和数上和句子的主语保持一致。下面结合高考试题,对有关主谓一致的问题作一分析。

 
1. 由 either … or …, neither … nor … , not only … but also …等连接的名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词的形式要和离动词最近的那个主语在人称和数上保持一致。例如:
 
Neither you nor he is to blame.
 
你和他都不该受责备。
 
Not only the students but also the teacher has to memorize the text.
 
不仅学生而且老师都要把课文背熟。
 
Either he or you are to do that work.
 
不是他就是你要做那项工作。
 
2. 主语后面跟有 with, together with, but, along with, like, except, besides, including, in addition to, rather than, as well as 等加名词或代词构成的短语时,谓语动词的形式通常和这些短语前面的主语在人称和数上保持一致。例如:
 
I, as well as they, am ready to help you.
 
我和他们都乐意帮助你。
 
A woman with two children is coming.
 
一个妇女带着两个孩子走过来了。
 
Nobody but Tom and Mary was there.
 
只有汤姆和玛丽在那里。
 
An expert, together with some assistants, was sent to help in the work.
 
一位专家和几位助手被派去协助这项工作。
 
No one except my parents knows anything about it.
 
除了我父母谁也不知道这件事。
 
3. 由 and 连接的并列名词词组作主语时,如果主语是指两个或更多个人或物,谓语动词要用复数形式;如果主语是指同一个人或物,这时, and 后面的名词前面没有冠词,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:
 
The secretary and the principal of the school were present at the meeting.
 
该校的书记和校长都出席了会议。
 
The secretary and principal of the school was present at the meething.
 
该校的书记兼校长出席了会议。
 
4. 集体名词如 family, team, group, class, club, committee, audience, public 等用作主语时,如果侧重一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式;如果着重集体中的各个成员,谓语动词用复数形式。例如:
 
His family isn't very large.
 
他家人口不多。
 
His family are all music lovers.
 
他家的人都喜欢音乐。
 
The audience was enormous.
 
观众人数很多。
 
The audience were greatly moved at the words.
 
听了这话,听众都很感动。
 
5. 在 there 或 here 引起的句子中,如果主语不止一个,谓语动词的形式要和与其临近的那个主语在数上保持一致。例如:
 
There is a book, two pens and three pencils on the desk.
 
书桌上有一本书,两支钢笔和三支铅笔。
 
Here are a few envelopes, a pen and some paper for you.
 
这儿有几个信封、一支笔和一些纸给你。
 
6. “ a number of +复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式:“ the number of +复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式。例如:
 
A number of books have been published on the subject.
 
有关这一学科的书出版了许多。
 
The number of the books published on the subject is simply amazing.
 
有关这一学科的书,出版的数量简直惊人。
 
7. 形式上是单数而意义上是复数的集体名词如 people, police, cattle (牛), poultry (家禽)等用作主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式;形式上是复数而意义上是单数的名词如 works (工厂), savings (存款), news (新闻), means (方法), politics (政治), economics (经济学)等用作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:
 
The police are on the track of the criminal.
 
警察正在追捕那个罪犯。
 
The cattle are eating grass on the pasture.
 
牛正在草场上吃草。
 
Every means has been tried.
 
每一种方法都试过了。
 
The chemical works is located in the suburb of the city.
 
那个化工厂位于城市的郊区。
 
8. each 和由 some, any, no, every 构成的不定代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:
 
Each of us has something to say.
 
我们每个人都有些话要说。
 
Someone wants to see you at the door.
 
门口有个人想见你。
 
Nobody knows it.
 
没有人知道这件事。
 
9. 表示时间、距离、重量、金额、书名等复数名词作主语时,通常当作整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:
 
One hundred miles was covered in a single night.
 
一夜走了 100 英里。
 
Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.
 
允许有三个星期的时间做必要的准备。
 
10. “ the +形容词”一般表示一类人,如 the old (老人), the young (年轻人), the rich (有钱人,富人), the poor (穷人), the black (黑人), the white (白人), the dead (死者), the living (生者)等,若它们在句中作主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式。例如:
 
The rich are not always happy.
 
有钱的人并不总是快乐的。
 
The old are taken good care of.
 
老年人受到了很好的照料。
 
11. “分数或百分数+ of +名词”作主语时,谓语动词的形式要与 of 后面的名词在数上保持一致。例如:
 
About 70 percent of the workers in that factory are young people.
 
那些工厂 70 %的工人是年轻人。
 
Only three-fifths of the work was done yesterday by them.
 
昨天他们只完成了五分之三的工作。
 
12. 并列的动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式。例如:
 
Early to bed and early to rise makes one happy and wise.
 
睡得早,起得早,心情愉快身体好。
 
Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.
 
早睡早起是个好习惯。
 
Whether we will go or not matters little.
 
我们去不去关系不大。
 
13. 在“ one of the +复数名词+定语从句”结构中,若复数名词是定语从句的先行词,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数形式;但是,当 one 前面有 the only , the very 等修饰时, one 是先行词,定语从句的谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:
 
She is one of the girls I know who like to speak ill of others behind their backs.
 
她是我所知道的喜欢在背后说别人坏话的女孩之一。
 
She is the only one of the girls I know who likes to speak ill of others behind their backs.
 
她是我所知道的女孩中唯一的一个喜欢在背后说别人坏话的女孩。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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