21. Such large， impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class， an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners： and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.
22. Towns like Bournemouth and East bourne sprang up to house large “comfortable” classes who had retired on their incomes， and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders‘ meeting to dictate their orders to the management.
23. The “shareholders” as such had no knowledge of the lives， thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares， and his influence on the relations of capital and labor was not good.
24. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands， but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away.
25. Among the many shaping factors， I would single out the country’s excellent elementary schools： a labor force that welcomed the new technology； the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal， “spatial” thinking about things technological.