英汉翻译时的对应问题

日期:2014-10-23 17:12:44    阅读:1723


  英汉翻译时往往遇到一些问题,由于两种语言习惯不同,英语和汉语一般都有对应的语汇或习语,然而在处理英译汉的时候遇到具体问题时,译员在英语翻译的时候常常不能完全的对应。北京天译时代翻译公司公司整理了关于英汉翻译时的对应问题,希望对学员的翻译能力提高有所帮助。
  比如汉语习惯称亚洲“四小龙”,英语虽然可译成the Asian “four dragons”,但西方人大都叫the Asian “four tigers”或“four tigers” in Asia,因为在西方人的眼里,dragon是一种类似鳄鱼或蛇、长有翅膀而且会喷火、常常看守着金银财宝的怪物。
  单个词尚且如此,成语和谚语就更难对应了,有时甚至连原文的踪迹都没有了,如 “Don't teach your grandmother to suck eggs”,如果按照字面直译成“不要教你的奶奶磕鸡蛋”,让人看了会莫名其妙。要是意译为“不要班门弄斧”,就既表达了原意,也符合汉语习惯。
  和汉语一样,英语的成语也很多,但其中大部分都很难对译成汉语成语,这时一般采取意译。如:
  1.Like talking to a brick wall(对牛弹琴,瞎子点灯白费蜡),意为to waste one's breath trying to persuade someone who is so obstinate to listen to reason;例句:He is so dogmatic; it's like talking to a brick wall arguing with him.
  2.To make bricks without straw(巧妇难为无米之炊),意为to try to achieve some result with inadequate means;例句:We were unable to give you an opinion because you didn't give us the information we needed. We can't make bricks without straw.
  3.The rotten apple(害群之马,败家之子)意为the one bad person among a number of good ones;例句:His youngest son was the rotten apple.
  4.To pay back in the same coin, to pay sb. back in his own coin, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth,(以眼还眼,以牙还牙,以其人之道还治其人之身)意为to retaliate by using the same method;例句:Jukes has attacked us in his advertisement overseas; we will pay him back in the same coin.
  有时,英语中也会出现包含着形象、比喻、拟人等手法的长句,在汉语中很难找到对应的语汇,这时只能根据上下文的意思,或整篇文章的中心思想,在不损失、冲淡甚至歪曲原意的基础上进行适当处理。请看以下例子: CED Finklestein: He needs to pull a rabbit out of his hat. 总经理芬克斯泰因:他需要拿出一个绝招来(直译:他需要从自己的帽子里抓出一只兔子来)。
  以上的几个例句,希望在以后的英语翻译过程中,要注意不要直译理解和翻译,适当的体会和采取意译的方法。
  本文章由天译时代翻译公司整理发布的。

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